Typical neurological diseases
Multiple sclerosis, also known as encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord. This repeatedly leads to inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), which results in so-called “demyelination” (destruction of the myelin sheaths of the nerve cell processes). As these demyelinating lesions can occur throughout the CNS, MS can cause a variety of symptoms (e.g. visual disturbances, numbness, paralysis).
Contrary to popular belief, MS does not necessarily lead to severe disability, but has a variety of courses. The disease is still not curable, but its course can be influenced favourably. The treatment options for MS have improved considerably in recent years, and various immunomodulatory substances and immunosuppressants are available for treatment.
In addition to intensive medical care, our MS patients are accompanied and supported by a specially trained MS nurse.
A stroke is a circulatory disorder of the brain. This is often an occlusion of a cerebral vessel, which leads to the death of the area of the brain supplied by this vessel. This can lead, for example, to facial paralysis, paralysis of a leg or arm, and speech disorders.
A stroke is a medical emergency and must be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible. The causes of such an event must also be carefully investigated.
Among other things, a colour duplex or Doppler sonographic examination should be performed to exclude an occlusion in the area of the carotid arteries. The treatment options for strokes have improved considerably in recent years. However, the earlier action can be taken,
the better the regression of symptoms.
Dementia is a comprehensive impairment of brain functions with disturbance of memory and other partial functions, as well as impairment of social or occupational functions. In addition to Alzheimer’s dementia and vascular dementia, other dementias requiring treatment must be clarified.
It is crucial for the prognosis to detect the disease at an early stage. The examination methods used include EEG recording,
cerebral magnetic resonance tomography, Doppler or colour duplex sonographic examination of the vessels supplying the brain and test psychological methods. Treatment depends on the cause of the disease.
This is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain which, due to an increasing lack of dopamine, especially in the black substance of
the brain (substantia nigra), leads to disturbances in the course of movement with the occurrence of typical symptoms such as tremor, increased muscle tension (rigor) and lack of movement (akinesia). Parkinson’s disease usually only occurs after the age of 40.
The frequency increases with increasing age.
Treatment is primarily medication to compensate for the brain’s lack of dopamine. Fortunately, a whole range of effective substances are available today for this purpose. Accompanying physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy are used as required.
In advanced stages, neurosurgical implantation of stimulation probes in certain brain areas, e.g. the thalamus, can now be performed.
Peripheral nervous system disease (CTS, SUS, PNP)
The most common peripheral nervous system disorders seen in neurology practice are carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), sulcus ulnaris syndrome (SUS), and distal polyneuropathies (PNP).
In carpal tunnel syndrome, the median nerve in the wrist (carpal) tunnel is compressed, the nerve conduction velocity is reduced in this case, there are sensory disturbances of the fingers and nocturnal pain in the affected arm. Mild cases can be treated conservatively, but if the carpal tunnel syndrome has been present for a long time, surgical treatment is usually the only option.
Sulcus ulnaris syndrome results from irritation of the ulnar nerve in the groove at the elbow joint. As with carpal tunnel syndrome, there is pain, sensory disturbances and sometimes even paralysis. The diagnosis is confirmed by neurography, and treatment is conservative or surgical.
A polyneuropathy, a disease of several nerves, mostly affecting the legs, can be caused by numerous different causes. Typical symptoms are sensory disturbances, painful discomfort or trophic disorders of the extremities. The most common cause of polyneuropathy is diabetes mellitus. If the cause cannot be found, treatment is usually difficult.
Epilepsy is a seizure disorder with sudden spontaneous discharges of the central nerve cells. This may or may not be accompanied by loss of consciousness and may last from seconds to minutes.
The condition may be inherited, but may also be caused by various changes in the brain. Epileptic seizures are also often triggered by certain provoking factors (e.g. sleep deprivation, excessive alcohol consumption). The disease can be treated well with medication, but certain behavioural measures (e.g. sufficient sleep) should also be taken into account. Electroencephalography (EEG), among other things, is helpful in diagnosing epilepsy.
Tension headaches are mild to moderate headaches that can occur in the area of the entire head. There are episodic and chronic forms,
and a familial predisposition can also be assumed. The character of the pain is described as dull and pressing, the duration of the headache varies from hours to days.Various medicines, including homeopathic medicines, are available for treatment. In addition, an improvement of the symptoms can be achieved with physiotherapy. Often there is a migraine in addition to the tension headache. Keeping a headache diary makes it easier for the attending physician to initiate adequate therapy.
Migraine is a periodic, predominantly unilateral, pulsating, stabbing headache accompanied by additional symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and/or sound.
Sometimes the headache is preceded by an aura in the form of visual, sensory or motor perceptual disturbances. New migraine medications have been available for several years and have significantly improved the treatment of the symptoms. In the case of frequent migraine attacks, prophylactic therapy can also be initiated.
Excessive consumption of conventional “headache pills” can significantly increase headache symptoms or even trigger them. In this case, the medication must be changed and gradually readjusted.
Muscular disorders (myopathies) and myasthenia gravis
Muscular disorders (myopathies) are primarily manifested by muscle weakness, but often also by pain or muscle atrophy.
There are inflammatory-autoimmunological, hormonal, metabolic, genetic and toxic muscular disorders.
A special form is myasthenia gravis, which is based on a disturbance in the transmission of information between nerve and muscle. Treatment depends on the cause of the disease.
There is a large number of different diseases of the spine. Among the most common are herniated discs, degenerative changes of the spine and narrowing of the spinal canal. In the neurological field, diseases involving the nerves or the spinal cord are treated. These are accompanied by pain, sensory disturbances or paralysis. Clinical examination, neurography and electromyography are used as examination methods.
In many cases, treatment can be conservative; with regard to surgical therapy, the patient is referred to a neurosurgical specialist.
Pain is a physiologically meaningful sensation of the human organism for the recognition and perception of internal and external damaging influences. Under certain circumstances, the sensation of pain can take on a life of its own, and even without a corresponding stimulus it can be constantly and significantly present, with severe impairment of the general and psychological well-being.
In the field of neurology and psychiatry, pain syndromes play a major role in the form of neurogenic, neuropathic and psychogenic/psychosomatic pain.
Examples are headaches and facial pain, back pain, pain in the area of irritated or damaged nerve tracts, e.g. due to pressure caused by a herniated disc or in the context of a bottleneck syndrome (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome), or psychogenic pain in the context of depression or inner conflict.
Depending on the type and cause of the pain, treatment may involve medication, surgery, physiotherapy or psychotherapy.